So-called Islamic State group (IS) has shifted its propaganda distribution to the secure mobile messaging app Telegram from Twitter, where its accounts have been repeatedly shut down over the past year.
IS appears to be exploiting a new tool introduced by the app last month, which allows users to broadcast their messages to an unlimited number of members via their own Telegram "channel".
IS appears to be hoping the Berlin-based Telegram will offer it a more stable and resilient platform for its propaganda, faced with a sustained clampdown on its Twitter presence.
But Telegram itself suggests it will take down illegal material that is made publicly available via the app - including posts related to IS, according to its website.
BBC Monitoring looks at how IS has started to use Telegram as its first point-of-call for spreading its propaganda.